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如何朗读英语句子及文章【节奏及语调】

曹海涛2019-06-21 20:25:24

【英语语言中的连读、略读、弱读、缩读】更多中国人应注意的纯正的英语语言知识。不在于考试,不在于所谓的速成,在于纯正及优美的英语语言.

即使在拥有了良好的发音以及连读、略读、弱读等基本的语音因素后,作为中国人,因为语调以及句子节奏侧重点的不同,我们还是无法说出地道的发音。

从节奏及语调的角度来讲,中国英语学习者在认知上要以下列为基础:

第一、我们有四个声调,而英语中主要有三个(声调、降调和平调);

第二、我们重读每一个字,而英语需要重读一个意群内的关键实词,其它虚词需要弱读;

第三、我们句子内部的语调变化很少(除非是在表达强烈感情的时候,例如“你到底想干什么!!这句话中我们会把 干什么!! 给重读出来”),而英语在一句话内部的语调变化较为丰富;

第四、中国人说话肢体语言没有英语表达的丰富。

【意群】

意群就是指句子中按意思和语法结构划分出的各个成分,每一个成分即称为一个意群。同一意群中的词与词的关系紧密相关,密不可分,否则就会引起误解。

意群和意群之间可以有一定的停顿,这种停顿和人们的思维活动是一致的,但一个意群中的各个单词之间则不可停顿,整个意群读下来就像一个长单词一样。

注意:意群之间的停顿是根据说话人情况而定,并非一定要停顿不可。但如有停顿,则必在意群之间,随意乱停就破坏了语言的节奏。

Reading aloud /is very important / for beginners.


Early to bed / and early to rise / makes a man / healthy, happy, and wise.


Jane, / who’s a brilliant swimmer, / represented Britain / at the Olympic Games.


After he took his bath, / he dressed in a hurry, / ran to catch the bus, / and got to his appointment / before it was too late.


意群是节奏和语调的基础,一定要把意群搞懂!


【节奏】

英语的节奏感是通过意群以及意群内部的重读词汇的交互作用下形成的,所以节奏的出发点是一句话的重读。

重读三原则:

1、句子中的实词(名词、动词、形容词、副词、数词、代词)作为内容词需要重读;

2、句子中的虚词(介词、连词、冠词、感叹词)作为功能词需要弱读;

3、口语交流中,虚词在句子中起到重要的表意作用时,要重读。


Must I stick it on myself?


Must I ‘stick it ‘on my’self?


Must I ‘stick it on my’self?

‘What ‘s the ‘matter?

The ‘sweater is ‘beautiful.

Your ‘book is on the ‘desk.

He ‘started ‘counting it.

He ‘usually ‘gets up at ‘six o’clock.



BONUS:

一、助动词的重读

1. 助动词、情态动词和be动词一般没有句子重音,但在附加句中可以重读,在简答句中则必须重读:

He won’t do it, ‘will he? No he ‘won’t.

You can do it, ‘can’t you? Yes, I ‘can.

You were trying, ‘weren’t you? Yes, I ‘was.

2.助动词、情态动词和be动词与not连成一词时要重读:

She ‘doesn’t ‘like the ‘weather here.

I ‘can’t ‘speak ‘French。

They ‘aren’t ‘waiting for us.

He ‘isn’t a tech ‘nician.

3.be用在一般疑问句句首时,重读与否均可:

‘Is he a ‘worker?

Is he a ‘worker?

比较句中的重音

在比较句中,重音落在as或than后的代(名)词上:

This is better than ‘that.

John is taller than ‘Bill.

She’s as happy as a ‘lark.

He’s as sly as a ‘fox.

二、逻辑重读

句子的重音总是要表现说话人的思想和他所要表达的意思的重点。有时为了强调,句子中几乎任何词都可以有句子重音,包括一些通常没有句子重音的词,这种依说话者意图重读的音就是逻辑重音。

Are you ‘angry with me?

Are you ‘angry with ‘me?

Are ‘you ‘angry with me?


Did you tell my ‘wife?

Did you tell ‘my wife?

Did ‘you tell my wife?


We ‘heard ‘John ‘talking.

We ‘heard John talking.

We heard ‘John talking.


【语调】

英语语调主要有降调、升调和平调三大类。不同的语调可以表示说话人不同的态度和不同的隐含意思。

英语中同一句话采用不同的语调会产生截然不同的语意概念,如“Yes”,同时语调具有强烈的感情色彩,它使语言更富有表现力。

降调

用于陈述句

I have already read that book. ↘

That street is two miles long. ↘

用于特殊疑问句

What has happened to him? ↘

Which direction is it to the post office? ↘

注意:特殊疑问句有时可用升调表示请别人重复刚说过的话:

What is your major? ↗

Where shall we go for the holiday? ↗

用于祈使句

Go back to your seat! ↘

Please do not hesitate to contact me. ↘

用于感叹句

What a small world! ↘

Oh! My poor Mathilde, how you’ve changed! ↘

用于选择疑问句中“or”之后的部分

Do you want to ride or walk? ↘

Would you like coffee or tea? ↘


升调

用于一般疑问句

Do you mind if I sit here? ↗

Can you hand in your compositions today? ↗

注意:一般疑问句有时也可用降调,表示一种不耐烦的口气,或表示命令等。

Are you satisfied? ↘

Will you take off your hat, please? ↘

用于罗列中最后一项之前的各项

For each incomplete sentence, there are four choices marked A↗, B↗, C↗, and D. ↘

We study Chinese ↗, history ↗, geography ↗, and English. ↘

用于陈述句,表示疑问、怀疑、未定、猜测或期待等

Your really want to do it? ↗

She might have gone. ↗

I think so. ↗


用于置于句首的状语短语或状语从句

After dinner ↗, I read a magazine and made telephone calls. ↘

While you were writing letters ↗, I was reading a book. ↘

用于并列句的第一个分句,表示句子还未说完

My fever is gone ↗, but I still have a cough. ↘

My major is English ↗, and I like it. ↘

用于委婉祈使句

Excuse me, sir ↗. Can you help me? ↗

用于称呼语

Mrs. Smith ↗, this is Tom Jones. ↘


平调

用于直接引语后,表示话是谁说的

“We are going to Florida,” she said brightly. →

“How do you feel, boy?” I asked him. →


文章练习:

Youth is not a time of life; it is a state of mind; it is not a matter of rosy cheeks, red lips and supple knees; it is a matter of the will, a quality of the imagination, a vigor of the emotions; it is the freshness of the deep springs of life.


Youth means a temperamental predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the love of ease. This often exists in a man of 60 more than a boy of 20. Nobody grows old merely by a number of years. We grow old by deserting our ideals.


Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up enthusiasm wrinkles the soul. Worry, fear, self-distrust bows the heart and turns the spirit back to dust.


Whether 60 or 16, there is in every human being’s heart the lure of wonders, the unfailing appetite for what’s next and the joy of the game of living. In the center of your heart and my heart, there is a wireless station; so long as it receives messages of beauty, hope, courage and power from man and from the infinite, so long as you are young.


When your aerials are down, and your spirit is covered with snows of cynicism and the ice of pessimism, then you’ve grown old, even at 20; but as long as your aerials are up, to catch waves of optimism, there’s hope you may die young at 80.

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